Change the world, Emotional well being, Foundations for academic success, language literacy, Literacy, Parenting, Pre-reading, Reading, Reading aloud, Reading culture

Why we should all be reading aloud to children – all children

Rebecca Bellingham presents at TEDx - "Why we should all be reading aloud to children."
See the embedded TEDx video below

In her TED Talk Rebecca Bellingham tell us, “As a teacher and a mom, I cannot think of many things that matter as much as reading aloud to our kids, at home and at school.” I completely agree with her. Being read aloud to stimulates the brain, triggers the imagination, transports you to another world, broadens your horizons with experiences that you may never personally have, triggers your emotions, allows you to put yourself in another person’s shoes and escape your own life, if only briefly. It is magic!

Rebecca passionately states, “Reading aloud gives kids a special kind of access to the transformative power of a story and the experience of what real reading is all about, which is to deeply understand, to think, to learn and discuss big ideas about the world, about the lives of others and about ourselves.” If you are reading aloud to your child daily, as you should be, these BIG conversations occur naturally. They are so important to the process of growing up.

What struck me most in this talk is that she puts forward the idea that reading aloud to groups of children makes it possible for some children to “get inside a book” in a way that they’ve never done before. For some children, this is their only opportunity to “get inside a book” and to see that movie inside their head. If no one is reading to them at home, this is it.

“Getting inside a book” is one of those very important stepping stones to reading. Children eventually want to control when and how they have this experience for themselves and therefore are motivated to pick up a book they may be dying to read because their friends are talking about it.

Reading aloud could be a catalyst to life-long reading and high literacy levels. The power of reading aloud to children cannot be underestimated.

Links

Why we should all be reading aloud to children | Rebecca Bellingham | TEDxYouth@BeaconStreet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBuT2wdYtpM

To explore working with Lianne in Johannesburg (Fourways, Strathavon & Bordeaux South), contact her to find out how she can meet your needs.

Emotional well being, Family life, Foundations for academic success, Literacy, Organisation skills, Parenting

Teaching kids responsibility & holding kids accountable. Why it is so important?

A boy climbing up a climbing wall.

Experienced teachers share things parents should do to set their kids up for success – Part 6 of 10

There are a multitude of factors that determine a child’s academic success. However, there are indications that developing a sense of responsibility and accountability can have a significant impact on the quality of a child’s school performance. Being accountable means being responsible for something and ultimately being answerable for your actions.

So why is it that accountability & responsibility has such a great impact on a child’s school performance? It is all about the behaviour that this elicits. It is a very powerful thing for a child to realize that they can be positively in control of their lives. It’s life-altering for a child to discover that by choosing and directing their behaviour responsibly, they can determine the outcomes of their situation, day, week, month and year.

When a child takes on ownership and responsibility, to some degree life stops happening to them and they start an amazing journey where they are more in control, they are the driver, the navigator. Being responsible and taking ownership becomes the norm and a very satisfying part of growing up. This, however, does not happen overnight, nor does it happen of its own accord. Children need to be held accountable in order to learn about and develop a sense of responsibility. Children need to be given opportunities, at appropriate ages & stages, to develop skills and to be responsible and to take ownership, in age-appropriate situations, by the adults around them. They need to learn about consequences.

The subtle yet damaging messages created by excuses

If we do not hold children accountable and continually make excuses for them – because we think that doing household chores is too hard for them or that handing in a project on time is too great an expectation of them – then we are sending them the message that we think they are not capable, cannot be trusted, are weaker than their peers and that they need someone else to do it for them, who can do it better than they can or make excuses on their behalf. This in itself is an enormously powerful, yet negative and damaging message, that can strongly impact a child’s view of themselves.

A child who is constantly getting these types of subtle yet negative messages from the adults around them, cannot feel good about themselves, cannot feel capable or valued. Taking this path is how we end up with university professors receiving calls from loving mothers trying to explain why their adult child did not hand in an assignment by the due date, even though it was issued 2 months ago and their child is 22 years old. Yes, frighteningly this does happen more often than you would expect. Some mothers arrive in person.

Parents need to demonstrate, instruct and encourage

As parents and teachers, we need to demonstrate, instruct, encourage and allow children to be more responsible for their actions and accountable for the outcomes, their successes and their failures. They should own all of it – the good and the bad. This is not being mean to them. In no way do I mean for you to leave a young child out in the cold (emotionally), without support or supervision, to cope on their own. Obviously, teaching responsibility and holding them accountable is a process of imparting skills from a young age, while still being supportive. It involves actively teaching them life skills and then showing trust in them by giving them responsibilities in small manageable increments. This allows parents to gradually increase their child’s responsibilities in a way that allows them to cope, in a way that builds their confidence and pride in their growing independence. What it doesn’t mean is making excuses for children when they could have, and should have, been responsible and accountable.

One thing to note is that to a large degree children learn responsibility and accountability by observing the adults around them. If the adults around them are not taking ownership, not being responsible or not holding themselves personally accountable and not being good role-models, then children will NOT learn about either easily. The adults have to lead by example.

Ways to teach life skills and encourage children to take responsibility and be accountable:

  • Pick up toys
  • Clean up a mess (age-appropriate)
  • Get dressed on their own.
  • Be ready on time for school with some supervision.
  • Pack their own bags the night before school.
  • Make their own beds.
  • They should know what is required of them for homework.
  • Complete projects on time.
  • Seek additional help when necessary.
  • Ask questions in class.
  • Monitor their own learning and progress.
  • Do chores at home.
  • Be responsible for taking care of a family pet.
  • Take care of their own belongings like jersey’s, lunch boxes and hats.
  • Be responsible for keeping one area of the house neat, tidy & organised.
  • Outline the consequences and carry them out – be consistent.
  • Show them what personal accountability looks like by doing it ourselves.
  • Create a safe space for them to admit that they messed up, take it on the chin, offer no excuses and make reparations.

The bottom line is that whether a child is held accountable or not is up to the parents and their chosen parenting style. If your child is 10 years old and still can’t dress himself/herself, whose fault is it? Who is accountable?

Children who have learned to take ownership and responsibility for themselves tend to…

  • get actively involved at school
  • develop organizational skills
  • be neat and tidy
  • be punctual
  • meet deadlines
  • be good at time management
  • plan ahead
  • have their own academic goals
  • better behaved
  • push themselves to improve in areas they feel matter the most
  • have confidence in their own ability & capabilities
  • take pride in all that they do
  • have a sense of belonging
  • have better people skills and understand their peers better
  • feel less helplessness in the face of adversity
  • work well in groups
  • know what the consequences are
  • show greater leadership skills
  • care about having a healthy relationship with authority figures because they feel confident
  • go out into the world without failing or falling face down

It is a no brainer to me that this is what a parent would want for their child. Why are we then seeing so much helicopter parenting where children are being raised to be irresponsible & unaccountable, where parents arrive with a list of excuses on behalf of the child or even worse do the work themselves?

An important distinction to remember is that responsibility can be shared but accountability cannot.

Respect your children enough to hold them accountable.

Further reading:

How to teach your kids to value personal accountability by Barbara Leech
https://afineparent.com/building-character/personal-accountability.html

How to Hold Your Children Accountable for Their Actions by Laci Swann
https://www.lightworkers.com/hold-children-accountable-actions/

Teach Your Child Responsibility — 7 Tips to Get Started by James Lehman
https://www.empoweringparents.com/article/teflon-kids-why-children-avoid-responsibility-and-how-to-hold-them-accountable/

Nine Tips for Teaching Kids Responsibility by Alonna Friedman
https://www.care.com/c/stories/5219/9-tips-for-teaching-kids-responsibility/

To explore working with Lianne in Johannesburg (Fourways, Strathavon & Bordeaux South), contact her to find out how she can meet your needs.

Emotional well being, Foundations for academic success, language literacy, Literacy, Parenting, Pre-reading, Reading, Reading aloud, Reading culture

The Secret Power of the Children’s Picture Book

“Even infants get profound cognitive and behavioral benefits from sharing a vivid story,” says Ms. Gurdon of the Wall Street Journal (18 January 2019).

If you are a parent you simply must read this article I came across in The Wall Street Journal. It is written by Ms. Gurdon who writes the WSJ’s “Children’s Books” column. The magic and power that lies behind the picture book has been expressed so well by her that I cannot help but publish the link here so that you can read the original article.

This is an essay adapted from Ms. Gurdon’s book “The Enchanted Hour: The Miraculous Power of Reading Aloud in the Age of Distraction“. Within 5 minutes of reading the article, I had ordered her book online.

To find out more and to read the full essay, please click the link below:

https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-secret-power-of-the-childrens-picture-book-11547824940

To explore working with Lianne in Johannesburg (Fourways, Strathavon & Bordeaux South), contact her to find out how she can meet your needs.

Adult illiteracy, Adult Literacy, Change the world, Community resource, Emotional well being, Foundations for academic success, Illiteracy, language literacy, Literacy, Reading, Reading aloud, Reading crisis, Reading culture

The Joy of Reading Aloud to ‘M’

A dream scenario with a floating piece of land on which stands an elephant and a car being driven by a giraffe.

It is not just children that need to be read to.

I read aloud to ‘M’ three times a week. This is one of the most precious times during my week and I wish I had more time to offer her. We are currently reading a book about Sawubona animal sanctuary that is being taken away from the family that founded it. It is about the relationship between a young girl, her grandmother, a game warden, the animals they care for and the man who is trying to take away everything that they have built. I read this story aloud to her.

As I read ‘M’ is riveted, entranced, filled with wonder and oozing need. I feel it pulling at me. I don’t think anyone has ever read to her before. Can you imagine that? Watching her unfold as we go through this reading experience together is magical to me. Although she is a woman, not a child, she generally sits facing me and while I read she does not take her eyes off me. I realized this the second time I read to her. I looked up after two long pages to find her frowning in concentration and focus, leaning forward, her eyes intense and wanting, pulling at me. By the end of our reading session she stretched as if coming out of a long dream. She was grinning uncontrollably and could not stop saying how much she had enjoyed it. She did not want to stop.

Over time, her intensity and anxiety around understanding has lessened and now I find her face more relaxed and fluid, her expression changing along with mine, her comprehension growing. I stop every now and again to check that she understands or to explain a word or phrase that I feel needs clarification. We move on.

Hooked on books

To this day ‘M’ still watches my face like a hawk, for any change in expression, trying to eek out every bit of understanding that she can. But now there are added emotions – WONDER, ANTICIPATION, BREATHLESSNESS for what comes next, PLEASURE and JOY. This is where I wanted to be with her. In a place where she experiences the sheer PLEASURE of reading and storytelling – the MAGIC and the DESPERATENESS of needing to know what comes next. This is what turns people into readers. She is hooked. For life. After years of teaching, I know the signs.

‘M’ is a young South African woman who did not finish her education. Sadly, she was forced to drop out of school very early due to family circumstances. We all know this South African tale very well and we know, even better, the consequences thereof.

‘M’ moved to Jozi a while back and has just started her working career, following in her mother’s footsteps. The only problem is that she struggles a great deal with communication, which means she will always struggle to get work and to keep a job. I decided to offer her reading classes as she lives in close proximity. I have discovered that she is very keen to learn and to perhaps complete her schooling at a later stage.

‘M’ has turned out to be an avid learner. She practices reading at home even when she hasn’t been given homework. We took a trip to the library, a first-time experience for her, and she became a member there and then. She has been a bit intimidated by the staff, as the librarians are quite stern, but I think she is now feeling confident enough to visit on her own. She loves the fact that she can go shopping for books for free.

Playing it forward

What is important to note though is that in teaching, reading aloud & doing remedial reading with ‘M’, I know that I am not teaching just one person. She is young and does not yet have children, but I know that when she does have children she will ensure that they also join the library. She will set an example by reading herself. She will be a mother that passionately reads to her kids. I know that she will read to them every single day that she possibly can. I know that she knows that this could change the trajectory of a person’s life. What we are doing in our lessons now is going to seep into the future, develop a life of its own, and have a positive impact on more than one individual’s life. ‘M’ knows the value, magic and joy of reading to someone and the power that it has. She will use that power going forward.

Many people regard reading aloud as something that you only do with very young children. This is absolutely not true. Research tells us that there is much value in reading aloud to older children – even those in their late teens. Truth be told, we all enjoy a good story.

The benefits of reading aloud

Reading aloud to someone develops their auditory skills and builds and grows vocabulary and comprehension. It is an integral part of becoming a fluent reader and a literate person. Therefore, if an adult has not learned to read it is really important that they are read to by someone. This way they can be exposed to words and phrases that they are not yet able to read for themselves. Having opportunities to build & expand vocabulary is just as important and being able to read. This together with Buddy Reading (Phono-Graphix terminology advocated by Jenny Taylor of Read for Africa), where you support a learner who is reading aloud, you can make a world of difference to a persons literacy levels in a short space of time.

The befits of reading aloud to children, tweens, teens and adults

  • Positive modeling of pronunciation
  • Positive modeling of tone, intonation and expression
  • Builds vocabulary
  • Improves comprehension
  • Improves listening skills
  • It helps with discussing difficult issues with older kids
  • It’s a way to work through the classics with older kids
  • It’s a way to introduce different genres with older kids
  • It sparks curiosity
  • It contributes to a thirst for knowledge & learning
  • It’s good for bonding
  • It is very satisfying and enjoyable
  • It is a stress relief for older kids

The challenge

If every literate person in South African could take on one fellow illiterate or semi-literate South African in their immediate environment, and humbly dedicate 1-2 hours a week to improving their literacy levels by reading to them, we could, despite our Government and a broken education system, make an enormous change in our country. Building a literate nation cannot be left up to our teachers and a few volunteers. The task is too great for them as this requires many many hours of one-to-one time and teachers in South Africa do not have that luxury, unfortunately. It needs to be done on a massive scale, with everyone who is capable of reading, playing their part.

ARE YOU UP TO THE CHALLENGE?

Further Reading

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Change the world, Cognitive stunting, Consequences of illiteracy, Foundations for academic success, Illiteracy, Reading, Reading crisis, Reading culture

South Africa’s reading crisis is a cognitive catastrophe

File 20180222 152369 1vwx4sd.jpg?ixlib=rb 1.1
South Africa needs to build a reading culture. UN Photo/P Mugabane/Flickr

John Aitchison, University of KwaZulu-Natal

When the late Black Consciousness leader Steve Biko published his seminal book, “I write what I like”, in 1978 it wasn’t about individual self-expression or even self-indulgence. It was a political statement with its origins in the work of Brazilian adult literacy activist Paulo Freire.

Freire identified the profound connection between reading, understanding the world and so being able to change it. Half a century after Biko was murdered by South Africa’s apartheid state, his country is no nearer being able to do this.

Instead, many of the country’s children are struggling to read at all. That’s according to the results of the international PIRLS 2016 literacy tests on nearly 13 000 South African school children. These showed that 78% of grade 4 children cannot read for meaning in any language. South Africa scored last of the 50 countries tested. Also worrying was that there were no signs of improvement over the last five years. In fact, in the case of the boys who were tested, the situation may have worsened.

A few weeks before these results were released, another study had found that 27% of children under five in the country suffer from stunting and that their brains are not developing as they should. Damage like this is largely irreversible. It leads to low school achievement and work productivity – and so to ongoing poverty.

These truly disadvantaged children are those of the poor; the 25% of South Africa’s population who live in extreme poverty. Given their dreadful circumstances, it might be understandable that 25% of children might not succeed in learning to read. But 78%? There has to be another explanation for that.

There are indeed reasons. They range from the absence of a reading culture among adult South Africans to the dearth of school libraries allied to the high cost of books and lastly to the low quality of training for teachers of reading.

No reading culture and bad teaching

Part of South Africa’s reading catastrophe is cultural. Most parents don’t read to their children many because they themselves are not literate and because there are very few cheap children’s books in African languages (and it must be remembered that English is a minority home language in South Africa).

But reading at home also doesn’t happen at the highest levels of middle class society and the new elite either. It’s treated as a lower order activity that’s uncool, nerdy and unpopular. And it’s not a spending priority. South Africans spend twice as much on chocolate each year than they do on books.

The situation doesn’t improve at school. Until provincial education departments ensure that every school has a simple library and that children have access to cheap suitable books in their own mother tongues, South Africa cannot be seen as serious about the teaching of reading.

Another problem lies with the fact that reading is taught badly. South Africa closed down its teacher training colleges between 1994 and 2000. This was done ostensibly to improve the quality of teacher education by making it the sole responsibility of universities. It backfired.

Previously, universities used to teach mainly high school teachers. Now they were expected to train foundation level teachers of the first three school grades. It was an area university’s education departments knew little about. They also inevitably incorporated only those training college educators who had postgraduate degrees. Sadly, these people generally had no great interest in the grunt work of teaching little children to read. So foundation level teacher training at universities is often a disaster.

There’s been some attempt to address this bungle. The latest of them is the Department of Higher Education and Training’s Primary Teacher Education project.

The teacher training curriculum is also problematic. Most teaching about reading instruction in South Africa’s universities is outdated. Faculties of education appear to have largely ignored modern scientific advances in understanding how reading happens.

What the science says

Over the last three decades cognitive neuroscience has clarified and resolved a number of debates about reading. It has been proven beyond doubt that reading – becoming literate – alters the brain.

Learning the visual representation of language and the rules for matching sounds and letters develops new language processing possibilities. It reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory and other crucial skills. It influences the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving.

Failing to learn to read is bad for the cognition necessary to function effectively in a modern society. The inability of South Africa to teach children to read, then, leads to another type of stunting: one that is as drastic as its physical counterpart.

The country now has generations who have been cognitively stunted because of a massive failure in its culture and educational provision. All South Africans are implicated if they don’t do their utmost to help people learn to read.

John Aitchison, Professor Emeritus of Adult Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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Consequences of illiteracy, Illiteracy, Literacy, Parenting, Reading, Reading crisis, Reading culture

The Consequences of Illiteracy

High illiteracy rates become a problem for everyone – the rich, middle class and poor. There are real consequences for everyone.

  • Illiteracy has a direct effect on a person’s self-esteem.
  • Illiterate learners place a financial strain on the education system.
  • Illiteracy leads to generational learning problems.
  • Illiteracy stops our society from developing at a steady rate.
  • Illiteracy negatively impacts the amount of technological advancement in our society.
  • Illiteracy increases poverty as illiterate people mostly earn the lowest wages in society.
  • Illiteracy contributes to high unemployment rates.
  • Illiteracy increases the crime rate in our society.
  • Illiteracy increases incarceration rates/jail time in our society.
  • Illiteracy leads to greater dependence on others as well as the state.
  • Illiteracy can lead to lower levels of meaningful community involvement and civic participation.
  • Illiteracy is linked to poor health.
  • Illiteracy rates increase drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Illiteracy rates have a negative effect on the overall health and well being of our country.
  • Illiterate people might not be able to be fully involved on a completely equal basis in social and political discourse.
  • Illiteracy leads to a lack of informed decision-making.
  • Illiteracy leads to struggles in knowing and understanding your rights, to vote, to find work, to pay bills and to secure housing.
  • Illiterate people may not vote or fully understand the consequences of their voting choice.
  • Household illiteracy negatively affects school readiness in young children.

Less obvious consequences of illiteracy

  • Lack of confidence
  • Low self-esteem
  • Continual financial hardship
  • Inability to change circumstances
  • Lowered life outcomes
  • Reduced access to lifelong learning and professional development
  • Dependency on others & state structures
  • Un-stimulating work environment
  • Despondency & loss of hope
  • Depression
  • Deep frustration & feelings of aggression
  • Early death due to ill health, leaving children without care
  • Feelings of being ostracized from academia
  • Having a sense of not belonging

If illiteracy is a problem for everyone, then there are real consequences for everyone living in a society affected by it. Does this not then lead us to think that it is everyone’s responsibility to do something about it. If we wait for our government to do anything about it, as we have been doing, we as South Africans are in for disappointment.

Challenge

I challenge everyone who has read this article to find ONE person in your environment who YOU can teach to read. Make a long term commitment to using the skills and knowledge you have gained and the privilege you were born into, to help build the literacy of our nation, one person at a time.

Can you imagine the impact we could have if every literate South African mentors and teaches just one other person to read. We could change the face of the South African landscape.

List of places you can volunteer to help with reading and literacy:

To read my previous article “What are the PROS and CONS of reading to your child daily?” please click here.

To explore working with Lianne in Johannesburg (Strathavon & Bordeaux South), contact her to discuss how she can meet your needs.

Emotional well being, Foundations for academic success, language literacy, Literacy, Parenting, Pre-reading, Reading

What are the PROS and CONS of reading to your child daily?

I covered “Why you CAN’T skip reading to your child for 20 minutes per day” in a previous post. Today I want to focus on the pros and cons of reading to your child daily.

The PROS of reading to your child daily are that it..
.

  • fosters parent-child bonding
  • will help him/her to associate reading with emotional comfort and enjoyment
  • prepares him/her for sleep if part of a bedtime routine
  • improves motor skills when opening the book, turning pages and gripping with thumb and forefinger
  • boosts brain development
  • helps him/her to master language
  • builds vocabulary and understanding
  • develops sound recognition
  • acts as a stepping stone for conversation
  • develops the skill of logic when reading a story repeatedly
  • teaches him/her about prediction
  • develops the imagination
  • develops and improves attention span and concentration
  • is the start of understanding sequences, which is important for math, science and writing
  • encourages a love of reading which is invaluable
  • promotes discussion (which can contribute to dinner time conversation)
  • promotes the development of healthy habits
  • is relaxing and soothing and is good for stress reduction
  • improves emotional and social development
  • will become an activity that YOU can’t do without
  • promotes cuddling, snuggling and sharing

This list is not exhaustive.

The CONS of reading to your child daily are that…

  • you have to find time in your already busy schedule
  • you have to be disciplined no matter how you feel on the day
  • you have to manage your feelings of boredom due to monotony
  • you have to get your child to bed before they are too tired for story time

It’s a no brainer. Are you convinced yet?

Further reading:

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Foundations for academic success, language literacy, Literacy, Parenting, Reading

What is literacy?

What do we mean by LITERACY?

LITERACY rates are a major concern across the world today, especially here in South Africa. Therefore, it is very important that we understand exactly what we mean when we talk about literacy.

Any confusion over the term ‘literacy’ is probably brought about by the fact that the definition of ‘literacy’ has evolved over time. Let’s start with what is traditionally understood by the word literacy.

The traditional / conventional definition of the word literacy.

Traditionally, literacy refers to the ability of an individual to read and write.

A long time ago it used to be as simple as that. If you could read from a book and write a letter, you were regarded as literate. Being literate was part of being educated and education was also once reserved for the wealthy elite only. Thankfully things have changed and over time school education and literacy have become accessible to many more people, to the point where it is often taken for granted.

Not so here, in sunny South Africa, where due to history and poverty we are still fighting for the right to quality basic education and fighting to improve our literacy levels.

We could call this traditional type of literacy ‘language literacy’. Language literacy usually begins with the development of speaking skills in young children. Speaking skills should then lead on to the development of reading skills and subsequently to writing skills.

Speaking skills appear to develop organically, without too much effort, because the child assimilates and absorbs spoken language through the environment with relative ease. This is due to daily exposure to the sounds of speech around them. They mimic those speaking around them, get corrected by experienced speakers and experience success as a reward for their communication attempts. Picture the cute toddler gurgling out ‘mama’ incoherently for the first time, as everyone claps and cheers with broad grins and shiny eyes, giving the child lots of attention.

There are very few home environments where a young child is not exposed to language. However, there are many home environments in South Africa where children are not exposed to reading and books.

We must keep in mind that key to the development of language literacy is the development of reading skills. Reading skills evolve in a less organic way than speaking skills do, which requires greater effort. The development of reading skills depends heavily on environmental influences and the availability of resources. It is more likely that a child will end up in an environment deprived of reading, rather than a home environment where they are deprived of spoken language.

This is why many children in South Africa do not learn to read well or do not develop high literacy levels, even though they commendably speak several different languages fluently.

Developing reading skills requires an environment …

  • where reading is modeled as part of daily life.
  • which is print-rich (in other words there is reading material available).
  • where the skill of reading is actively encouraged in the child through exposure, participation, enjoyment and routine.
  • where there is already some development in the understanding of the spoken word.
  • where the development of the ability to decode the written word is encouraged and fostered on a daily basis and not just left up to the school environment.
  • that does not encourage rote learning (learning by memorising) of whole words but rather through the application of the decoding skills that have been taught.
  • where there is an understanding that reading skill development takes place on a progression, over time and takes work.
  • where lots of opportunity for practice is provided for.
  • where encouragement and praise is given, just like it is given when we clap for a toddler who utters his first few words.
  • where it is understood that over time the deeper meaning and subtleties of the language will develop through repeated exposure to vocabulary, which is seen in different contexts through reading.

All of the above leads to an improvement in…

  • the understanding of and correct use of spoken language for the purposes of communication,
  • as well as an understanding of and the accurate production of written language for the same purpose.

Reading involves:

The coming together of this awareness results in high levels of understanding and comprehension, which then results in greater reading fluency. Thereafter, the more you read the more exposure you gain to the written word and this leads to improved spoken and written skills. Overall this means an improvement in general literacy levels.

We have to understand that schools can only do so much and therefore the exposure and work has to continue at home. For further information on developing a culture of reading and why it is so important to read every day please click here and here.

The modern definition of the word literacy

We have all heard of computer literacy or digital literacy. These terms are widely used and we understand these concepts well. The traditional definition of the word ‘literacy’ has became outdated or at least not inclusive enough.

Experts at a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) meeting proposed defining literacy as the “ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts”. (Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy). My understanding of the meaning of ‘contexts’ is as a reference to platforms or technologies. So what the experts are saying is that literacy is now all encompassing of platforms and contexts. It involves being able to read, listen, speak, understand, interpret, identify, compute and communicate through speech and written text within various contexts or technologies.

Once again the focus is on understanding information in the written / printed form and producing coherent information back in the written / printed form, regardless of the context, technology or platform used. So believing that children do not and will not require traditional literacy skills in today’s world or the future, is completely unfounded.

In fact, if anything, there is even more demand being made on their traditional literacy skills as they are required to process a much greater volume of written information, on multiple platforms and at a faster pace than ever before.

Matthew Lynch at The Edvocate highlights and explains 13 different types of literacies.

  • Digital literacy
  • Media Literacy
  • Recreational Literacy
  • Diciplinary Literacy
  • Civic Literacy
  • Multicultural Literacy
  • Information Literacy
  • Functional Literacy
  • Content Literacy
  • Early Literacy
  • Developmental Literacy
  • Balanced Literacy
  • Critical Literacy

You can read the full article here. The solid foundation for the development of these literacies he refers to lies in traditional literacy, namely speaking, reading and writing.

Below you will see two further examples of some of the different types of literacies talked about today.

The point is that the development of these other forms of literacy in no way diminishes the importance of being able to read and write fluently, or the fact that traditional literacy is a foundation that needs to be built solidly. Our language fluency and literacy levels can have a direct effect on our ability to further develop certain other types of literacies.

Literacy Advance defines literacy as follows:

Literacy is the ability to read, write, speak and listen, and use numeracy and technology, at a level that enables people to express and understand ideas and opinions, to make decisions and solve problems, to achieve their goals, and to participate fully in their community and in wider society. Achieving literacy is a lifelong learning process.

https://www.literacyadvance.org/About_Us/Defining_Literacy/

I appreciate the fact that Literacy Advance highlights that achieving literacy is a lifelong journey, which allows one to make effective decisions, solve problems, achieve goals and to constructively participate in community and society.

What we take away from this is that being LITERATE no longer means that you can read, write and speak adequately. It can now refer to how solid your reading, writing and speaking foundation is, and how this foundation enables you to further develop other literacies that allow you to participate effectively in society in various ways.

Further reading:

To explore working with Lianne in Randburg, Fourways and other areas in Johannesburg, contact her to discuss how she can meet your needs.

Emotional well being, Family life, Foundations for academic success, Literacy, Organisation skills, Parenting, Reading

Arrive on time and be ready to learn.

Clear eyed healthy boy, ready for school and learning, looks into the camera.

Experienced teachers share things parents should do to set their kids up for success – Part 5 of 10

Today we explore how to arrive on time and be ready to learn. In other words, here you will find tips for helping your child be prepared for the day.

Teaching your child the skill of being prepared, and enforcing routines and behaviours that allow them to achieve this, can be the difference between academic success and mediocrity. As a rule, children who do well academically are seldom the ones who arrive at school late, carrying half their project in their arms, sleep deprived with dishevelled hair and dragging a lunch box full of processed food behind them.

Routine

Whether we like it or not, routine is the recipe for being on time and having happy kids and parents. I might also add, that it is the answer to happy teachers too and most certainly contributes to academic success. The routines I’m referring to are morning routines, after school routines, homework routines and bed time routines. These routines are the cornerstone of children being able to arrive on time, ready to learn.

Your kids might buck against a new routine to begin with. However, when they know what comes next, what is expected of them, where the boundaries are and that there are no exceptions, they usually settle down and accept it quite quickly. Never give up on establishing childhood routines. It takes time and consistency.

Routines becomes even more important when there is big change around the corner, such as moving house or changing schools. Keep as many and as much of your old routines in place as you possibly can. It will help everyone in your family to transition through the change with greater ease and less disruption.

Routines allow for predictability and smooth the way for arriving on time, being prepared, experiencing less stress and feeling open to learning. Just the fact that having routines can reduce unnecessary stress for children should be enough of a motivation to implement them.

Routines also allow you to move away from constantly supervising your child every step of the way and allowing for more independence and ownership of tasks. This is important for the development of a child’s self-esteem and self-confidence.

As adults it is our job to create, initiate and maintain these routines to ensure that children will arrive on time and be ready to learn.

Diet

I can speak for hours about how diet affects a child’s performance, behaviour and readiness to learn. I tend to get on my high horse whenever the topic comes up, so please forgive me for doing so now. But really, with the access to information that we have today, there are no more excuses. Jamie Oliver has made sure of that with his food education drives that have reached out globally.

Firstly, breakfast is not negotiable. Grab a banana and a yoghurt for the kids and let them eat in the car if you have to. If you can, move away from sugary cereals and explain why you are doing so to your child. Educating our little ones about healthy food choices is essential and should start as early as possible.

If you’re packing your child’s lunch box with ANY of the following – chips, sweets, chocolates, biscuits, sugary drinks, McDonalds, left over pizza or two minute noodles – I’m talking to you, and I’m mad. The rest of you can skip to the next subheading.

None of the things I have mentioned above should be anywhere near your child’s lunch box, except for once a week, as a treat.

How can any reasonable person expect teachers to control 15 – 50 kids, in a confined space, who are wired on sugar, colourants, preservatives, MSG and a host of other bad things? If you want to sabotage your child’s ability to succeed at school, this is a very reliable way to do it. Do you have any idea how your angel behaves in a large group setting when they are high on sugar and MSG? Looking at the contents of the lunch box you packed, I’d say clearly not.

If your child is on medication related to behaviour and /or concentration and you are feeding them sugar and junk food, you may as well flush it down the loo. Any good that comes from taking the medicine is being cancelled out by unhealthy lunch box contents. There is a good chance that with a positive change in diet, your child won’t need medication at all to improve his / her concentration. You could save a ton of money and spend it on even healthier food options.

It may also surprise you to know that 100% fruit juice is not a healthy drink for kids and yet it is in every child’s lunch box almost daily. What is wrong with water? Ask any dietician whether it is healthy for kids to drink undiluted fruit juice on a daily basis? The answer is NO, because of the number of calories, the cavities it causes and the amount of sugar involved. This is not the way to ensure that your child will arrive on time and be ready to learn.

In an interview on the e-Tv Sunrise Show, Tabitha Hume (2015), one of Johannesburg’s leading clinical dieticians, recommended these TOP FIVE TIPS TO HEALTHY LUNCH BOXES

1. Provide whole grains and slow releasing carbohydrates. 
Carbohydrates are broken down by the body into glucose, the primary source of fuel for the brain. By including brown and whole wheat breads/rolls/biscuits meals there will be a constant trickle of energy for the brain to function optimally. 
2. Include fresh fruit and vegetables daily
Fruit and veggies provide the vitamins and minerals necessary for children to stay healthy and fight off unwanted germs. Including veggie sticks or fresh fruit is a better option than including a juice box. This is because unprocessed fruit and veggies in their whole form, as well as slow releasing carbohydrates, contain fibre which helps children stay fuller for longer and able to concentrate on the task at hand rather than a grumbling tummy.
3. Clean safe water is an absolute must. 
Research has shown that even a small degree of dehydration can impair cognitive function and concentration.
4. Provide your child with sufficient snacks for the day. 
Your brain needs two fuels to function, oxygen and glucose. Providing enough well compiled snacks will prevent a drop in blood sugar which will leave the child with less energy, more easily frustrated and with a feeling of hunger.
5. Plan carefully.
With today’s fast paced life parents may tend to lead to convenient foods or even giving their children tuck-shop money. These foods are often high in sugar and fat which may impact a child’s weight. Childhood obesity has been proven to impact on disease status in ones later years of life.

As adults it is our job to control our kids diets and to educate them about healthy eating.

Sleep

Children consistently need an age appropriate amount of sleep to be alert and ready to learn all day. If you have your routines in place, you should be able to get sleep right with your kids 90% of the time. The National Sleep Foundation tells us that most school aged children need 9-11 hours of sleep a night.

Without enough sleep it is impossible for a child to perform at their peak, academically or otherwise. So each day that your child is tired adds up to another day where they have lost out on information due to slow thinking or a lack of concentration.

We also know that not enough sleep can cause irritability, changes in behaviour, sleepiness, difficulty concentrating and moodiness. Not only can a lack of sleep affect academic performance, the ability to concentrate and feelings of motivation, but it can also increase irritability. Irritability can lead to conflict, causing relationship problems and problems with authority.

With today’s busy schedules it is quite difficult for children to catch up on sleep, much like it is for adults. Therefore, disciplined routines are essential so that sleep is not compromised.

As adults it is our job to create healthy sleep routines, which will ensure that our children arrive on time and are ready to learn.

Be organised

Another life skill that children need to be taught from a young age is organisational skills. Kids who have weak organisation skills struggle with handling information in effective ways. Simple tasks, like packing up toys and putting them in the right place, can begin the process of learning to be organised.

Weak organisational skills frequently lead to difficulties in setting and identifying priorities, making and sticking to plans, staying with a task and reaching end goals. This makes it difficult for a child to arrive on time and be ready to learn

Amanda Morin from Understood discusses the 4 ways that children use organisational skills to learn. Below I’ve shared some of what she has to say.

  • Organisation and Following Directions – Children have to focus on what needs to be done and then plan ahead, which requires mental organisation.
  • Organisation and Learning to Read – When matching sounds to symbols, learners need to file this information in a way that makes it easily retrievable. As learners progress through learning to read and striving for fluency the filing system in their head becomes more complicated, requiring more complex organisational skills.
  • Organisation and Literacy Learning – Literacy is a combination of reading, writing and grammar skills. To navigate between these three a child requires a number of organisation strategies.
  • Organisation and Learning Math – Math is a very organised subject. There are many rules and procedures to follow. As math gets more abstract and complex, children with weak organisation skills have trouble coping because they can’t create their own categories for sorting the information.

Children first learn by example and therefore it is important that organised behaviour is modelled in the home. They need to be taught that lego goes in one box and building blocks in another box. Norms like this also teach categorising skills to children, which later leads to the ability to organise information.

Letting children know implicitly that they are expected to be organised, and why, really helps. We also need to praise them when they get it right. If they can understand the reason behind a rule they are more likely to cooperate sooner or more frequently. It needs to be pointed out to them that there is a correlation between organisational skills and success at school. These skills have to be learnt and practiced as we are not born with them.

Set an example for your children. If you’re tidying up, packing your bag for the next day or making tomorrows lunches, make them aware of it and let them do the same alongside you. They can tidy their rooms, pack their school bags neatly, pack any sports bags they require and can even get involved in sorting out lunch boxes. If they forget or leave a bag at home, do not drop it off at school for them. Don’t take the responsibility or the opportunity to learn away from them. We have to realise that sometimes helping is actually hurting and that mistakes are an opportunity to learn. Being left out of the swimming class will ensure that their swimming bag never gets left behind again. The less you do for them, the more they will do for themselves.

Being organised allows children to stay focused on the task at hand and maximises learning time instead of wasting it on chasing down pencil bags and other resources needed at the time.

As adults, it is our job to model good organisational skills and to help our children to develop these skills. It is part of arriving on time and being ready to learn. Since it is impossible for us to always be there to run around after our kids we need to instil skills that allow for greater independence.

Arrive on time

Teaching your kids the value of being punctual is as easy as making sure that you get them to school on time almost every day of their school careers. I say ‘almost every day’ because we are all human and there are going to be those days where life does not cooperate. That’s okay, because kids also need to know that it is alright to be human and fallible.

The problem lies with those parents that are consistently late for school on a regular basis. Strangely enough, these are usually the parents who live within a few roads of the school. They cannot even use traffic as a plausible excuse. When a teacher addresses the problem with these parents, they never seem to get the severity of the problem. Punctuality is just not a priority for them.

The unintended consequence of a child being late for school on a regular basis are enormous and far reaching.

  • Firstly, they’re embarrassed because they stand out for reasons that they have no control over. If this happens daily their embarrassment grows.
  • This leads to daily stress and anxiety.
  • It is very disruptive to the start of the day for the teacher and it becomes incredibly annoying over time. The class register is always incorrect, early morning administration is incomplete and then requires followup, preparation routines are missed or interrupted and it generally starts the day off badly for everyone.
  • It is disruptive to the child’s peers as the morning routine is interrupted. Everyone’s concentration is adversely affected. Other children start to get annoyed over a period of time and they start to show their irritation in mean ways, as children often do.
  • Being late regularly has a social impact on a child because no one wants to be in a group with them. This is mainly because these children are perceived to be unreliable and separate from the rules that govern everyone else.
  • The stress and anxiety they feel prevents the child from focusing and from being ready to learn, causing even greater disruption and another reason why no one wants to work with them.
  • This child remains on the back foot all day, trying to catch up as they haven’t had the preparation time and gentle start to the day that everyone else has had.
  • They sometimes start to be treated as if they don’t belong because the rules that apply to everyone else don’t seem to apply to them. Kids are mean to those who appear to be outsiders. These children sometimes drift between friends and groups of friends, but never seem to settle into steady friendships. They don’t really belong and this is when teachers really start to be concerned.
  • When a child is isolated, does not feel like they belong, feels self-conscious, stressed, anxious, left behind and unprepared, we, as parents and teachers, cannot expect them to be academically successful or working to their full potential.

I believe that many parents, who notoriously get their kids to school late, do not intend for these to be the consequences. In fact, I think they may be completely unaware that there are consequences when you don’t arrive on time and ready to learn. If you are one of those parents, I hope that my article has opened your eyes and given you the motivation to make changes, for the sake of your child.

Further reading

For Part 4 in this series and to read ” Should we be strict about restricting screen time?”, please click here.

To explore working with Lianne in Randburg, Fourways and other areas in Johannesburg, contact her to discuss how she can meet your needs.

Emotional well being, Family life, Foundations for academic success, Literacy, Parenting

Should we be strict about restricting screen time?

A young boy watching a movie on a laptop screen - restricting screen time

Experienced teachers share things parents should do to set their kids up for success – Part 4 of 10

If you want your children to be literate and successful, you had better get your head around whether to be strict about restricting screen time, and enforcing quality over quantity.

Parents need to be on the same page regarding this, with pre-determined family rules for screen time that are clearly laid out and adhered to by all family members.

Today I will stress the possible dangers of not restricting screen time. There is lots of research out there supporting both sides of this argument. I’ve made up my own mind but have you made up yours? Are you parenting your way through the digital era without a clearly defined strategy?

Here is some food for thought.

What is screen time?

Screen time is time spent in front of any type of screened device, for any length of time, for either entertainment or recreation purposes. This includes TV’s, tablets, laptops, computers, iPads, smart phones and game consoles amongst others.

Types of screen time

Passive screen time

The main characteristic of passive screen time is that no thought, creativity or meaningful interaction is required of the child. The child passively absorbs information through mindless repetition or progress.

  • TV
  • YouTube video on AutoPlay
  • Repetitive games
  • Binge watching shows or movies
  • Social Media

Active screen time

Active screen time involves cognitive and/or physical engagement while using the device.

  • Coding activities
  • Educational games that require decision making and problem solving skills
  • Making Youtube videos that involve creativity and decision making
  • Editing pictures
  • Reading for leisure or knowledge

Remember that any screen time can be active or passive depending on how it is used.

Age appropriate screen time

In general, no passive screen time is recommended for children ages 0-6 years. There is research that suggests that it may delay language development, limit vocabulary growth or contribute to even more serious problems such as insomnia, screen addiction and lower psychological well being.

If screen time is allowed at all for children older that 6 years, it should be active, limited, supervised, interactive, fun and these activities should be played with family members. Don’t allow yourself to get into the habit of using screen time as a babysitting service.

For older children, I recommend limited screen time that is active and purpose driven. Some experts say that if it does not have educational value it has no value at all. I’m not sure if I agree with this completely but once again I strongly suggest that you don’t allow yourself to get into the habit of using screen time as a babysitter.

There is some indication that in older children too much screen time can lead to mood regulation problems, delayed or improper social development, concentration issues, behavioural and learning problems.

The effect of screen time on the brain

It is undisputedly a drug – and a fiercely addictive one at that. Studies on the effects of screen time on the brain, have indicated that the amount of dopamine released is comparable to that of cocaine or heroine.

UCLA Doctor, Peter Whybrow, refers to screens as “electronic cocaine” due to the level of dopamine that’s released while using digital technology. We know that the effects of dopamine are addictive, which is why so many of us adults can’t stay away from FaceBook or our other social media accounts. If we are unable to control our own addiction to screen time, we can’t really expect our children to do so of their own accord. We have to parent.

I’m sure most parents have experienced the epic, terrible two’s like melt down style tantrum that takes place when you switch off your child’s screen after asking them 3 times to come to the dinner table for the not negotiable family dinner.  What transpires can be frightening, but in light of what we know from the research about addiction, it is understandable.

Victoria L. Dunckley (M.D.) has written extensively on the topic of restricting screen time. She indicates that by not restricting screen time it can lead to Electronic Screen Syndrome (ESS)  which is essentially a disorder of dysregulation.  In her article, she states that “dysregulation can be defined as an inability to modulate one’s mood, attention, or level of arousal in a manner appropriate to one’s environment. Interacting with screens shifts the nervous system into fight-or-flight mode which leads to dysregulation and disorganization of various biological systems.” No wonder a tantrum ensues.

In addition, Victoria L. Dunckley (M.D.) blames a lot of mental health problems in kids on the effects of electronic screens. She believes that “the unnaturally stimulating nature of an electronic screen—irrespective of the content it brings—has ill effects on our mental and physical health at multiple levels”.

Why be strict about restricting screen time?

We know that…

  • Children don’t reliably self-regulate screen time. Therefore, we should still try to teach them how.
  • Light-at-night / blue light exposure adversely affects sleep.
  • Persuasive design is used by video game and social media companies to pull users, including children, onto their sites and keep them there for as long as possible—as this drives revenue.
  • Various other problems are associate with too much screen time
    • Attention problems
    • Learning problems
    • Mood disruption
    • Social problems
    • Behavioural issue
  • Those in the know in the tech industry , like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Chris Anderson, Evan Williams and Tim Cook sometimes severely restricted their children’s screen time. This should be a warning to us.

Guidelines for restricting screen time

There are an astounding number of articles online advising on guidelines for restricting screen time in the home. I strongly feel that there isn’t a ‘one size fits all’ option that will work for everyone. I think that as a family you should do sufficient research of your own in order to make an informed decision. Then create a set of rules / guidelines that work for your family, that everyone can adhere to and which don’t compromise your child’s psychological, social, educational and behavioural well being. Balance is everything.

My only list of suggested ‘musts’ are these…

  • Each family must have rules that govern screen time.
  • These rules must be adhered to consistently.
  • The charging of digital devices should take place in the parents’ bedroom overnight.
  • Parents / legal guardians must have access to all social media accounts and must monitor them.
  • Adhere to the law and age restrictions regarding social media accounts. There are reasons for these age limits and 13 years old is a general guideline.
  • Restrict screen time close to bedtime.
  • Restrict screen time during dinner time.
  • No screen time until homework and chores are done.
  • Paper books must still be part of a child’s daily life.
  • Screen time must not be used as a babysitting service.
  • Parents must set the example.

Further Reading

For Part 3 in this series and to read “Develop a culture of reading in your home”, please click here.

To explore working with Lianne in Fourways, Randburg and other areas in Johannesburg, contact her to discuss how she can meet your needs.